Start What is elucidating

What is elucidating

Utilizing themselves as test subjects, both men reported experiencing several aversive symptoms following Et OH consumption (i.e., sleepiness, increased heart rate, etc.; Jacobsen, 1958).

Recent experiments have established that numerous metabolites of alcohol have direct CNS action, and could, in part or whole, mediate the reinforcing actions of alcohol within the mesolimbic dopamine system. Induction of conditioned place preference and dopamine release by salsolinol in posterior VTA of rats: Involvement of mu-opioid receptors.

Following consumption, Et OH undergoes a number of reactions as it is metabolized. doi: 10.1016/20 Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Font, L., Miquel, M., and Aragon, C.

The primary pathway through which Et OH is eliminated from the body involves the action of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes (for review see: Deehan et al., 2013).

Alcoholism is estimated to be responsible for 3.8% of all global deaths, and cost associated with treatment equivalent to 1% of gross national product of high- and medium-income countries (Rehm et al., 2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0773.1949.tb03395.x Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Heikkila, R., Cohen, G., and Dembiec, D. Tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids: uptake by rat brain homogenates and inhibition of catecholamine uptake.

As such, a great deal of research has focused on therapeutic interventions to aid individuals that are currently suffering from alcoholism and a great deal of effort has been put forth to identify neurobiological traits that are common in individuals that are at a high-risk to develop an alcohol-use disorder.

It has been well established that high levels of ACD within the periphery are associated with aversive symptoms (i.e., flushing, headaches, etc.).

The drug disulfuram (tetraethylthiuramdisulphide), which has been approved for the treatment of alcoholism, exacerbates the aversive symptoms of ACD by inhibiting the metabolism of ACD thereby encouraging individuals to abstain from Et OH consumption. doi: 10.2174/156802609789630956 Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Griffiths, P.

Early studies had already indicated a positive correlation between Et OH intake and increased blood ACD levels such that binge drinkers exhibited ACD levels 35 times greater than controls (Stotz, 1943).