Start Carbon 14 dating example

Carbon 14 dating example

This exothermic reaction is used in the iron and steel industry to smelt iron and to control the carbon content of steel: Carbon combines with some metals at high temperatures to form metallic carbides, such as the iron carbide cementite in steel, and tungsten carbide, widely used as an abrasive and for making hard tips for cutting tools.

Graphite is much more reactive than diamond at standard conditions, despite being more thermodynamically stable, as its delocalised pi system is much more vulnerable to attack.

For example, graphite can be oxidised by hot concentrated nitric acid at standard conditions to mellitic acid, C Carbon sublimes in a carbon arc which has a temperature of about 5,800 K (5,530 °C; 9,980 °F).

The physical properties of carbon vary widely with the allotropic form.

For example, graphite is opaque and black while diamond is highly transparent.

Under normal conditions, diamond, carbon nanotubes, and graphene have the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials.

All carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions, with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form at standard temperature and pressure.

Although it forms an extraordinary variety of compounds, most forms of carbon are comparatively unreactive under normal conditions.

At standard temperature and pressure, it resists all but the strongest oxidizers.

The electronegativity of carbon is 2.5, significantly higher than the heavier group 14 elements (1.8–1.9), but close to most of the nearby nonmetals as well as some of the second- and third-row transition metals.

Carbon's covalent radii are normally taken as 77.2 pm (C–C), 66.7 pm (C=C) and 60.3 pm (C≡C), although these may vary depending on coordination number and what the carbon is bonded to.

The resulting network is 2-dimensional, and the resulting flat sheets are stacked and loosely bonded through weak van der Waals forces.