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The Concurrent List has 47 subjects important to both the Union and the State such as Electricity, Trade Union, Economic and Social Planning, etc.

The following provision of Indian constitution makes it unitary Article I of the Constitution describes India as a ‘Union of States’, which implies two things: firstly, it is not the result of an agreement among the States and secondly, the States have no freedom to secede or separate from the Union.

Indian Constitution provides that some amendments require a special majority.

Such an amendment has to be passed by majority of total members of each house of the Parliament as well as by two-thirds majority of the members present and voting there in.

In this system the central government and the governments of the units act within a well defined sphere, co-ordinate and at the same time act independently. Wheare defines federal government as an association of states, which has been formed for certain common purposes, but in which the member states retain a large measure of their original independence.

The federal polity, in other words, provides a constitutional device for bringing unity in diversity and for the achievement of common national goals. A federal government exists when the powers of the government for a community are divided substantially according to a principle that there is a single independent authority for the whole area in respect of some matters and there are independent regional authorities for other matters, each set of authorities being co-ordinate to and subordinate to the others within its own sphere.

This is one of the federal features of the Indian constitution.

The supremacy of the constitution means that both, the Union and the State Governments, shall operate within the limits set by the Constitution.

What feature of Indian constitution makes it federal or what features makes it unitary.